|In fact, it's more complicated than that. There are several sub-species that breed from southern Colombia
through Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and into Argentina. Some are dingier with less well marked wing-bars and the incessant and obvious calls are only
given in the breeding season. Jaramillo suggests that the sub-species found in
most of Chile E. a. chilensis might be a separate species. Several other authorities agree but this treatment has not been adopted by the
South American Classification Committee to date (April 2021). Photo 5 from the Kuelap Fortress in Peru shows, according to our guide, Forrest
Rowland, a migratory bird of the sub-species E. a. chilensis.