Epaulet Oriole (Icterus cayanensis)
Epaulet Oriole, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, July 2002 - click for larger image Brazil

The Epaulet Oriole is found from the Guianas, through Brazil mostly south of the Amazon, in eastern Peru, north and east Bolivia, and down to central Argentina.

It is found in a wide variety of habitats from woodland to cerrado and gardens.

Epaulet Oriole, Jaqueira, Pernambuco, Brazil, March 2004 - click for larger image There are several subspecies amongst which the main variation is the colour of the epaulet which varies from chestnut to yellow. The first two photos are of the subspecies I. c. tibialis which is characterised by a yellow epaulet and the yellow thighs you can see in the second photo. The 3rd and 4th photos show the sub-species I. c. valenciobuenoi with an ochre-orange epaulet and dusky wing-linings with yellow tips as can be seen in the 4th photo.
Epaulet Oriole, Aguas de São Pedro, São Paulo, Brazil, August 2004 - click for larger image There is considerable doubt about the exact taxonomy of this species and it may be that the yellow shouldered subspecies are more closely linked to Moriche Oriole Icterus chrysocephalus while the dark-shouldered subspecies may be a seperate species. Then again, Howard & Moore lumps Moriche Oriole with Epaulet Oriole so it is all a tad confusing.
Epaulet Oriole, Aguas de São Pedro, São Paulo, Brazil, August 2004 - click for larger image It is normally seen alone or in pairs or as part of a flock. It is usually an insect eater but sometimes sips nectar as it appears to be doing in most of these shots.

There are illustrations in Ridgely & Tudor, Volume 2, Plate 22; and Jaramillo & Burke, Plate 9.

Previous Page Back to Index Next Page

If you do not see a menu on the left, you may have arrived at this page from another site. Please click Home to get to my main page. Fatbirder's Top 1000 Birding Websites